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Ultrafast laser plasma doping of Er3+ in Si3N4-on-silicon



  1. Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  2. Centre for Process Innovation Limited (CPI), Neville Hamlin Building, NETPark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, County Durham, TS21 3FG, United Kingdom
  3. Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
  4. Applied Photon Science, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom


An ultrafast laser plasma doping (ULPD) technique is used to dope Er3+ into silicon nitride (Si3N4)-on-silicon substrate. An adjustable refractive index (1.9-2.9) makes silicon nitride a highly suitable candidate for erbium-doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) applications. The resultant layers consist of a mixture of target glass with Si3N4 and the structural and optical properties are varied according to fs-laser energy used. The use of higher fs-laser energy caused the formation of a thicker doped layer on Si3N4, predominantly with target material elements. However, surface doped layers were rougher when higher fs-laser energies were used. The doped layer exhibits spectroscopic characteristics of erbium with photoluminescence lifetimes varying from 3.95 to 9.59 ms..


Ultrafast lasers, Laser ablation, Optical materials, Er3+-doped glasses.

Submitted at: Jan. 14, 2019
Accepted at: Dec. 10, 2019


S. A. KAMIL, J. CHANDRAPPAN, T. F. KRAUSS, G. JOSE, Ultrafast laser plasma doping of Er3+ in Si3N4-on-silicon, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials Vol. 21, Iss. 11-12, pp. 710-716 (2019)